The Resource The Life-Cycle of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment

The Life-Cycle of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment

Label
The Life-Cycle of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment
Title
The Life-Cycle of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment
Creator
Contributor
Subject
Genre
Language
eng
Member of
Cataloging source
MiAaPQ
http://library.link/vocab/creatorName
Braund, R
LC call number
TD196.D78
Literary form
non fiction
Nature of contents
dictionaries
http://library.link/vocab/relatedWorkOrContributorName
  • Peake, B. M
  • Tong, Alfred
  • Tremblay, Louis A
  • ProQuest (Firm)
Series statement
Woodhead Publishing Series in Biomedicine Ser
Label
The Life-Cycle of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment
Link
https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/multco/detail.action?docID=4093438
Instantiates
Publication
Copyright
Carrier category
online resource
Carrier category code
cr
Carrier MARC source
rdacarrier
Color
multicolored
Content category
text
Content type code
txt
Content type MARC source
rdacontent
Contents
  • Front Cover -- The Life-Cycle of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment -- Copyright -- Dedication -- Contents -- Foreword -- Acknowledgements -- Chapter 1: Introduction -- 1.1 Overview: Do pharmaceuticals pose a significant environmental risk? -- 1.2 Hazardous substances -- 1.3 Pathways to the environment: Life-cycle of pharmaceuticals -- 1.4 Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 2: Prescribing practices -- 2.1 Pharmaceuticals in legislative and healthcare systems -- 2.1.1 Case study: the role of PHARMAC in New Zealand pharmaceutical expenditure -- 2.2 The role of patient medical adherence -- 2.2.1 Secondary nonadherence and conscientiousness -- 2.2.2 Secondary nonadherence and medication-information seeking behavior -- 2.2.3 "White coat adherence" syndrome -- 2.2.4 Secondary nonadherence and adverse drug reactions, side effects, or efficacy -- 2.2.5 Secondary nonadherence and complex dosing regimens -- 2.3 Strategies to minimize medication nonadherence -- 2.4 "Doctor, it just doesn't work!"-Pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmaceutical waste -- 2.4.1 Action and behavior of drugs -- 2.4.2 Patient medical history -- 2.4.3 Concomitant medications -- 2.4.4 Dose titrations -- 2.5 "How much are those antibiotics? I want'em!" -- 2.6 Accumulation of unused medications -- 2.6.1 Return of unused medications to pharmacies and general medical practices -- 2.7 Strategies to prevent accumulation of unused pharmaceuticals -- References -- Chapter 3: Disposal of unused medications -- 3.1 Overview -- 3.2 The origins of unused medication -- 3.3 Medication disposal by households -- 3.4 Attitudes toward medication disposal -- 3.4.1 Influence of dosage form design -- 3.4.2 Medication disposal methods and environmental awareness -- 3.4.3 Medication disposal and advice received -- 3.4.4 Medication disposal practices and demographics
  • 3.4.5 Availability of formalized protocols for unused medication disposal -- 3.5 Feasibility of take-back programmes for unused medication -- 3.6 Management of pharmaceutical waste at take-back depots -- 3.7 The "best" method for the disposal of unused medications? -- 3.8 Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 4: Detection and presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment -- 4.1 Overview -- 4.2 Environmental detection of pharmaceuticals -- 4.3 Sample collection -- 4.3.1 To silanize or not to silanize-that is the sample container -- 4.3.2 Modes and frequency of sampling -- 4.3.3 Sample storage conditions and preservation techniques -- 4.3.4 Sample filtration -- 4.4 Sample extraction -- 4.4.1 Solid-phase extraction -- 4.4.2 Liquid-liquid extraction -- 4.5 Chromatographic separation of environmental sample extracts -- 4.6 Mass spectrometric detection and quantitation -- 4.6.1 Forms of output from LC-MS/MS -- 4.6.2 Identification and quantification of an analyte -- 4.6.3 Limits of detection -- 4.6.4 Extraction recovery efficiency and matrix effect -- 4.7 Environmental concentrations of some common pharmaceuticals -- 4.8 Summary -- References -- Chapter 5: Impact of pharmaceuticals on the environment -- 5.1 Overview -- 5.2 Environmental risk assessment methodologies -- 5.3 Experimental variables involved in risk assessment -- 5.3.1 Environmental persistence -- 5.3.1.1 Environmental persistence of pharmaceuticals in water -- 5.3.1.2 Environmental persistence in soils and sediment -- 5.3.1.3 Environmental persistence in marine and coastal wetland environments -- 5.3.1.4 Categorization of environmental persistence of pharmaceuticals -- 5.3.2.1 Bioconcentration factors of pharmaceuticals -- 5.3.3 Fate of pharmaceuticals in environmental organisms (toxicokinetics) -- 5.4 Ecotoxicology -- 5.4.1 Acute versus chronic ecotoxicity
  • 5.4.2 Ecotoxicology testing in fish -- 5.4.3 Ecotoxicology testing with Daphnia -- 5.4.4 Ecotoxicology testing with plants and algae -- 5.5 Mixture toxicity -- 5.6 Case study: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) in the environment -- 5.7 Case study: Fluoxetine in the environment -- 5.8 Case study: Diclofenac in the environment -- 5.9 Summary -- References -- Chapter 6: Degradation of pharmaceuticals in wastewater -- 6.1 Basic steps in wastewater treatment -- 6.1.1 Preliminary treatment -- 6.1.2 Primary treatment -- 6.1.3 Secondary treatment -- 6.1.3.1 Suspended growth-activated sludge -- 6.1.3.2 Oxidation ditch -- 6.1.3.3 Attached growth processes -- 6.1.3.4 Surface-aerated basin (oxidation/stabilization pond, lagoon) -- 6.1.4 Tertiary treatment -- 6.1.4.1 Filtration/membrane separation processes -- 6.1.4.2 Adsorption by activated carbon -- 6.1.4.3 Advanced oxidation processes -- 6.1.5 Other sewage treatment methods -- 6.1.5.1 Land treatment -- 6.1.5.2 Wetlands -- 6.1.5.3 Onsite sewage treatment and disposal (septic tanks) -- 6.2 Removal and degradation of selected human pharmaceuticals -- 6.2.1 Degradation of some common pharmaceuticals in wastewater -- 6.2.1.1 Paracetamol (acetaminophen) -- 6.2.1.2 Diclofenac -- 6.2.1.3 Ibuprofen -- 6.2.1.4 β -blockers -- 6.2.1.5 Antibiotics -- 6.2.1.6 An antiviral drug (oseltamivir) -- 6.2.1.7 A psychotic drug (fluoxetine) -- 6.2.2 Laboratory studies of pharmaceutical degradation in aqueous solution -- 6.2.2.1 Paracetamol -- 6.2.2.2 Diclofenac -- 6.2.2.3 Ibuprofen -- 6.2.2.4 β -Blockers -- 6.2.2.5 Oseltamivir -- 6.2.2.6 Fluoxetine -- 6.3 Effect of the natural organic matrix on pharmaceutical removal and degradation in wastewater -- 6.4 Summary and conclusions -- References -- Chapter 7: Regulatory practices to control the discharge of pharmaceuticals into the environment
  • 7.1 Overview -- 7.2 The United States of America and Canada -- 7.3 European Union (EU) -- 7.4 China and other parts of Asia -- 7.5 Australia -- 7.6 New Zealand -- 7.7 Challenges and conclusions -- References -- Chapter 8: Green chemistry, green pharmacy, and life-cycle assessments -- 8.1 Green chemistry and green pharmacy -- 8.1.2 Application to pharmaceuticals -- 8.2 Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) -- 8.3 Summary -- References -- Chapter 9: Summary and Conclusions -- 9.1 The potential environmental risk of pharmaceuticals? -- 9.2 Some possible future considerations -- Index -- Back Cover
Control code
EBC4093438
Dimensions
unknown
Extent
1 online resource (272 pages)
Form of item
online
Isbn
9781908818454
Media category
computer
Media MARC source
rdamedia
Media type code
c
Note
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2018. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.
Sound
unknown sound
Specific material designation
remote
System control number
  • (MiAaPQ)EBC4093438
  • (Au-PeEL)EBL4093438
  • (CaPaEBR)ebr11121066
  • (CaONFJC)MIL853573
  • (OCoLC)936865349
Label
The Life-Cycle of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment
Link
https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/multco/detail.action?docID=4093438
Publication
Copyright
Carrier category
online resource
Carrier category code
cr
Carrier MARC source
rdacarrier
Color
multicolored
Content category
text
Content type code
txt
Content type MARC source
rdacontent
Contents
  • Front Cover -- The Life-Cycle of Pharmaceuticals in the Environment -- Copyright -- Dedication -- Contents -- Foreword -- Acknowledgements -- Chapter 1: Introduction -- 1.1 Overview: Do pharmaceuticals pose a significant environmental risk? -- 1.2 Hazardous substances -- 1.3 Pathways to the environment: Life-cycle of pharmaceuticals -- 1.4 Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 2: Prescribing practices -- 2.1 Pharmaceuticals in legislative and healthcare systems -- 2.1.1 Case study: the role of PHARMAC in New Zealand pharmaceutical expenditure -- 2.2 The role of patient medical adherence -- 2.2.1 Secondary nonadherence and conscientiousness -- 2.2.2 Secondary nonadherence and medication-information seeking behavior -- 2.2.3 "White coat adherence" syndrome -- 2.2.4 Secondary nonadherence and adverse drug reactions, side effects, or efficacy -- 2.2.5 Secondary nonadherence and complex dosing regimens -- 2.3 Strategies to minimize medication nonadherence -- 2.4 "Doctor, it just doesn't work!"-Pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmaceutical waste -- 2.4.1 Action and behavior of drugs -- 2.4.2 Patient medical history -- 2.4.3 Concomitant medications -- 2.4.4 Dose titrations -- 2.5 "How much are those antibiotics? I want'em!" -- 2.6 Accumulation of unused medications -- 2.6.1 Return of unused medications to pharmacies and general medical practices -- 2.7 Strategies to prevent accumulation of unused pharmaceuticals -- References -- Chapter 3: Disposal of unused medications -- 3.1 Overview -- 3.2 The origins of unused medication -- 3.3 Medication disposal by households -- 3.4 Attitudes toward medication disposal -- 3.4.1 Influence of dosage form design -- 3.4.2 Medication disposal methods and environmental awareness -- 3.4.3 Medication disposal and advice received -- 3.4.4 Medication disposal practices and demographics
  • 3.4.5 Availability of formalized protocols for unused medication disposal -- 3.5 Feasibility of take-back programmes for unused medication -- 3.6 Management of pharmaceutical waste at take-back depots -- 3.7 The "best" method for the disposal of unused medications? -- 3.8 Conclusions -- References -- Chapter 4: Detection and presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment -- 4.1 Overview -- 4.2 Environmental detection of pharmaceuticals -- 4.3 Sample collection -- 4.3.1 To silanize or not to silanize-that is the sample container -- 4.3.2 Modes and frequency of sampling -- 4.3.3 Sample storage conditions and preservation techniques -- 4.3.4 Sample filtration -- 4.4 Sample extraction -- 4.4.1 Solid-phase extraction -- 4.4.2 Liquid-liquid extraction -- 4.5 Chromatographic separation of environmental sample extracts -- 4.6 Mass spectrometric detection and quantitation -- 4.6.1 Forms of output from LC-MS/MS -- 4.6.2 Identification and quantification of an analyte -- 4.6.3 Limits of detection -- 4.6.4 Extraction recovery efficiency and matrix effect -- 4.7 Environmental concentrations of some common pharmaceuticals -- 4.8 Summary -- References -- Chapter 5: Impact of pharmaceuticals on the environment -- 5.1 Overview -- 5.2 Environmental risk assessment methodologies -- 5.3 Experimental variables involved in risk assessment -- 5.3.1 Environmental persistence -- 5.3.1.1 Environmental persistence of pharmaceuticals in water -- 5.3.1.2 Environmental persistence in soils and sediment -- 5.3.1.3 Environmental persistence in marine and coastal wetland environments -- 5.3.1.4 Categorization of environmental persistence of pharmaceuticals -- 5.3.2.1 Bioconcentration factors of pharmaceuticals -- 5.3.3 Fate of pharmaceuticals in environmental organisms (toxicokinetics) -- 5.4 Ecotoxicology -- 5.4.1 Acute versus chronic ecotoxicity
  • 5.4.2 Ecotoxicology testing in fish -- 5.4.3 Ecotoxicology testing with Daphnia -- 5.4.4 Ecotoxicology testing with plants and algae -- 5.5 Mixture toxicity -- 5.6 Case study: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) in the environment -- 5.7 Case study: Fluoxetine in the environment -- 5.8 Case study: Diclofenac in the environment -- 5.9 Summary -- References -- Chapter 6: Degradation of pharmaceuticals in wastewater -- 6.1 Basic steps in wastewater treatment -- 6.1.1 Preliminary treatment -- 6.1.2 Primary treatment -- 6.1.3 Secondary treatment -- 6.1.3.1 Suspended growth-activated sludge -- 6.1.3.2 Oxidation ditch -- 6.1.3.3 Attached growth processes -- 6.1.3.4 Surface-aerated basin (oxidation/stabilization pond, lagoon) -- 6.1.4 Tertiary treatment -- 6.1.4.1 Filtration/membrane separation processes -- 6.1.4.2 Adsorption by activated carbon -- 6.1.4.3 Advanced oxidation processes -- 6.1.5 Other sewage treatment methods -- 6.1.5.1 Land treatment -- 6.1.5.2 Wetlands -- 6.1.5.3 Onsite sewage treatment and disposal (septic tanks) -- 6.2 Removal and degradation of selected human pharmaceuticals -- 6.2.1 Degradation of some common pharmaceuticals in wastewater -- 6.2.1.1 Paracetamol (acetaminophen) -- 6.2.1.2 Diclofenac -- 6.2.1.3 Ibuprofen -- 6.2.1.4 β -blockers -- 6.2.1.5 Antibiotics -- 6.2.1.6 An antiviral drug (oseltamivir) -- 6.2.1.7 A psychotic drug (fluoxetine) -- 6.2.2 Laboratory studies of pharmaceutical degradation in aqueous solution -- 6.2.2.1 Paracetamol -- 6.2.2.2 Diclofenac -- 6.2.2.3 Ibuprofen -- 6.2.2.4 β -Blockers -- 6.2.2.5 Oseltamivir -- 6.2.2.6 Fluoxetine -- 6.3 Effect of the natural organic matrix on pharmaceutical removal and degradation in wastewater -- 6.4 Summary and conclusions -- References -- Chapter 7: Regulatory practices to control the discharge of pharmaceuticals into the environment
  • 7.1 Overview -- 7.2 The United States of America and Canada -- 7.3 European Union (EU) -- 7.4 China and other parts of Asia -- 7.5 Australia -- 7.6 New Zealand -- 7.7 Challenges and conclusions -- References -- Chapter 8: Green chemistry, green pharmacy, and life-cycle assessments -- 8.1 Green chemistry and green pharmacy -- 8.1.2 Application to pharmaceuticals -- 8.2 Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) -- 8.3 Summary -- References -- Chapter 9: Summary and Conclusions -- 9.1 The potential environmental risk of pharmaceuticals? -- 9.2 Some possible future considerations -- Index -- Back Cover
Control code
EBC4093438
Dimensions
unknown
Extent
1 online resource (272 pages)
Form of item
online
Isbn
9781908818454
Media category
computer
Media MARC source
rdamedia
Media type code
c
Note
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2018. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.
Sound
unknown sound
Specific material designation
remote
System control number
  • (MiAaPQ)EBC4093438
  • (Au-PeEL)EBL4093438
  • (CaPaEBR)ebr11121066
  • (CaONFJC)MIL853573
  • (OCoLC)936865349

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