Coverart for item
The Resource Alternative energy sources to combat climate change : Biogas production using cost effective material

Alternative energy sources to combat climate change : Biogas production using cost effective material

Label
Alternative energy sources to combat climate change : Biogas production using cost effective material
Title
Alternative energy sources to combat climate change
Title remainder
Biogas production using cost effective material
Creator
Contributor
Subject
Genre
Language
eng
Summary
  • The shortage of energy in rural areas and the pollution of the environment from animal wastes due to lack of appropriate technology in Africa motivated the author to conduct research and write this book. In this research book an economically feasible, technically acceptable and environmentally friendly biogas plant is designed by using low cost plastic materials. This book is an essential reference for chemical engineering, environmental engineering and agricultural students. The concept solves global environmental pollution and the problem of lack of energy and organic fertilizer in rural communities at once. Moreover, this book plays an important role for agricultural researchers working in rural energy and environmental protection. Auszug aus dem Text Text sample: Kapitel 2.3, Theory of Biogas Technology: Biogas technology refers to the production of a combustible gas (called bio- gas) and a value added fertilizer (Called sludge) by the anaerobic fermentation of organic materials under certain controlled conditions of temperature, pH, HRT, C:N ratio etc. A typical bio-gas plant consists of input unit for feeding the fermentable mixture, a digester where anaerobic fermentation takes place, a gas holder for collecting the bio-gas and to cut off air to the gas outlet pipe and out put unit for removal of fermented slurry (Vandana, 2004). The plant operates on the principle that when dung and other organic materials are fermented in the absence of air, combustible methane gas is produced (Vandana, 2004). According to Grewal et al.(2000),biogas usually contains 50-65% methane (averaging 60%), 30-40% carbon dioxide (averaging 36%),1-5% of hydrogen,1% nitrogen, 0.1% oxygen, ,0.1% hydrogen sulphide and 0.1% water vapours (H2O). 2.4, Benefits of Low- Cost Plastic Biodigester Technology: Global level: - Using biogas for cooking reduces the need for
  • fuel wood and charcoal. Studies conducted by a Tanzania local energy NGO indicates that every 8 households clear fell one hectare of forestry each year through charcoal consumption alone (SURUDE,2002). When other causes of forestry destruction are added such as fuel wood, agriculture, construction and mining, deforestation rate in Tanzania is estimated at between 300,000 hectares and 400,000 hectares per year. Studies have further shown that each biogas unit is able to reduce scale of deforestation by 37 hectares per year. Since, it also uses cow dung that would otherwise have degraded, further green house gas emissions are avoided. This is realized by adapting to biogas in place of fuel wood and charcoal for cooking & heating (SURUDE, 2002). National level:- Bio-gas helps to save foreign currency which is spent on kerosene and chemical fertilizers. Researchers have estimated that 5 lakh bio-gas plants will have 750 million liters of kerosene per year and provide 12 million tones of organic manure. Biogas helps in reducing the need for expensive energy distribution in rural areas. Due to inefficient distribution system almost 20 percent of the powers are lost during transmission. Biogas system would help in preventing the denuding of forests in a careless manner by the villagers for fire wood requirements. Today deforestation being a serious threat to environment in large parts of the country, as it is followed by the danger of soil erosion and several other ecological imbalances (Vandana, 2004). Local level: - Reduced deforestation helps preserve forests and all of the services they provide, such as biodiversity and maintenance of water quality. In addition, the promotion of agro forestry practices in conjunction with livestock helps protect soil fertility, prevent erosion, and reduce the risk of overgrazing problems often associated with cattle
  • (Duong et al., 2002). Poverty Alleviation:- Biogas production integrated with cattle raising and farming provides a reliable source of cleaner fuel as well as increased in come and employment opportunities. Therefore, increased incorporation of cattle in to farming methods increases employment opportunities there by stimulating rural economy. The production of biogas also produces slurry that is very effective as a fertilizer. Farmers have effectively used it in agro forestry farming. Studies by Sokoine Agricultural University in Tanzania have shown that the use of this fertilizer helps maintain soil quality over time, there improving crop yields (SURUDE, 2002). Poverty reduction through improved health:-Respiratory diseases and sometimes deaths caused by indoor pollution as a result of prolonged exposure to smoke from fuel wood and charcoal is avoided when biogas is used for cooking (Vandana, 2004). The utilization of biogas freed the house wives from eye- sore, eye and lung diseases. The use of bio- gas as a domestic fuel can be a thrilling experience for a house wife (SURUDE, 2002). Reduced drudgery: - Women and children do not have to spend as much time looking for firewood. Cooking with biogas is also faster than with firewood. As a result, the drudgery and workload of women is lessened. Cooking by using a biogas cooker is easy and fast, this has two implications. On one hand it has reduced fuel wood collection and pollution laden cooking tasks on the part of women. On the other hand it has increased gender equity by involving men in domestic chores. Projects that provide direct benefits to woman are usually sustainable (SURUDE, 2002). 2.4.1, Environmental Benefits of Biogas Technology: Biogas does not contain toxic carbon monoxide so no danger to health and no offensive odour, reduction in pollution as BOD and COD and facial pathogens are
  • considerably reduced and environment improvement in rural area reduces illness and build up people's health. Besides, in regions where biogas is used to generate electricity, cultural, recreation and spare time study conditions can also be improved. (Duong et al., 2002). 2.4.2, Social Benefits of Biogas Technology: Biogas development brings about social benefits. As the problem of fuel for the farmer's daily use is solved, trees are protected and forests are developed. The protection of trees and increase in vegetation areas can reduce soil erosion and improve ecologic balance. The increase in organic manure can result in using less chemical fertilizer, improving soil and increasing production (UNV, 1983). Therefore, the use of plastic biogas plant saves the time that can be used for wage work, consumption of conventional energy sources for cooking, lighting or cooling and substitution of digested slurry in place of chemical fertilizers and / or financially noticeable increased in crop yields. Biographische Informationen Bezabih Yimer (M. Sc.) grew up in Dessie, Ethiopia. He studied Land Resource Management at the Mekelle University and graduated 2001 with the Bachelor of Science. After he finished studying Agricultural Engineering and Mechanization at the Mersa Agricultural College with the degree "Master of Science" in 2008, he started working as a lecturer and natural resource utilization department head at the Mersa Agricultural College
Cataloging source
MiAaPQ
LC call number
HD9502.A2 -- .Y56 2014eb
Literary form
non fiction
Nature of contents
dictionaries
Label
Alternative energy sources to combat climate change : Biogas production using cost effective material
Link
http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/multco/detail.action?docID=1640404
Instantiates
Publication
Copyright
Carrier category
online resource
Carrier category code
cr
Carrier MARC source
rdacarrier
Color
multicolored
Content category
text
Content type code
txt
Content type MARC source
rdacontent
Contents
  • Alternative energy sources to combat climate change -- Acknowledgements -- Table of contents -- ABSTRACT -- 1 Introduction -- 1.1 Background -- 1.2 Problem Statement -- 1.3 Purpose of the Study -- 1.4 Hypothesis -- 1.5 Objectives of the Study -- 2 Literature Review -- 2.1 Fuel Consumption in Ethiopia -- 2.2 Biomass and Biogas Energy Technologies in Ethiopia -- 2.3 Theory of Biogas Technology -- 2.4 Benefits of Low- Cost Plastic Biodigester Technology -- 2.5 Input Materials for Bio- Gas Production -- 2.6 Biogas Production Processes -- 2.7 Theory of Biogas Burner -- 2.8 The Slurry after Digestion -- 2.9 Measurement of Biogas Production -- 2.10 Designing of Digesters -- 2.11 Working of Fixed-Dome Biogas Plant -- 2.12 Selection and Layout of Pipeline and Biogas Accessories -- 2.13 Transfer of the Plastic Film Biodigester Technology -- 2.14 Promotion of Fixed and Floating Dome Biogas Plant -- 2.15 Economic Evaluations of Biogas Plants -- 2.16 LDPE Geomembrane Plastic -- 2.17 Theory of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) -- 3 Materials and Methods -- 3.1. Description of the Study Area -- 3.2 Experimental Design and Layout -- 3.3 Geomembrane Plastic Construction methodology -- 3.4 Data Collection Procedures -- 3.5 Statistical Analysis -- 4 Result and Discussion -- 4.1 Operation of Plastic Biodigester -- 4.2 Biogas production -- 4.3 Temperature of the Air and Slurry -- 4.4 Characteristics of Bio-digested Slurry (Effluent) and the Influent -- 4.5 Characteristics of Total-N in the Slurry and Influent -- 4.6 Characteristics of Organic Matter in the Slurry and Substrate -- 4.7 Characteristics of pH of Fermented Slurry -- 4.8 Efficiency of the Biodigesters -- 4.9 Economic Evaluations -- 4.10 Social aspect of biogas technology -- 4.11 Technological aspect of geomembrane plastic biodigester -- 4.12 Technical problems with the geomembrane plastic digester
  • 4.13 Environmental Impact Assessment of the Plastic Biodigester -- 5 Conclusions and Recommendation -- 5.1 Conclusions -- 5.2 Recommendations -- References -- Appendix -- List of Tables -- List of figures -- Acronyms
Control code
EBC1640404
Dimensions
unknown
Edition
1st ed.
Extent
1 online resource (85 pages)
Form of item
online
Isbn
9783954896271
Media category
computer
Media MARC source
rdamedia
Media type code
c
Note
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2017. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.
Sound
unknown sound
Specific material designation
remote
System control number
  • (MiAaPQ)EBC1640404
  • (Au-PeEL)EBL1640404
  • (CaPaEBR)ebr10856447
  • (OCoLC)871859785
Label
Alternative energy sources to combat climate change : Biogas production using cost effective material
Link
http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/multco/detail.action?docID=1640404
Publication
Copyright
Carrier category
online resource
Carrier category code
cr
Carrier MARC source
rdacarrier
Color
multicolored
Content category
text
Content type code
txt
Content type MARC source
rdacontent
Contents
  • Alternative energy sources to combat climate change -- Acknowledgements -- Table of contents -- ABSTRACT -- 1 Introduction -- 1.1 Background -- 1.2 Problem Statement -- 1.3 Purpose of the Study -- 1.4 Hypothesis -- 1.5 Objectives of the Study -- 2 Literature Review -- 2.1 Fuel Consumption in Ethiopia -- 2.2 Biomass and Biogas Energy Technologies in Ethiopia -- 2.3 Theory of Biogas Technology -- 2.4 Benefits of Low- Cost Plastic Biodigester Technology -- 2.5 Input Materials for Bio- Gas Production -- 2.6 Biogas Production Processes -- 2.7 Theory of Biogas Burner -- 2.8 The Slurry after Digestion -- 2.9 Measurement of Biogas Production -- 2.10 Designing of Digesters -- 2.11 Working of Fixed-Dome Biogas Plant -- 2.12 Selection and Layout of Pipeline and Biogas Accessories -- 2.13 Transfer of the Plastic Film Biodigester Technology -- 2.14 Promotion of Fixed and Floating Dome Biogas Plant -- 2.15 Economic Evaluations of Biogas Plants -- 2.16 LDPE Geomembrane Plastic -- 2.17 Theory of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) -- 3 Materials and Methods -- 3.1. Description of the Study Area -- 3.2 Experimental Design and Layout -- 3.3 Geomembrane Plastic Construction methodology -- 3.4 Data Collection Procedures -- 3.5 Statistical Analysis -- 4 Result and Discussion -- 4.1 Operation of Plastic Biodigester -- 4.2 Biogas production -- 4.3 Temperature of the Air and Slurry -- 4.4 Characteristics of Bio-digested Slurry (Effluent) and the Influent -- 4.5 Characteristics of Total-N in the Slurry and Influent -- 4.6 Characteristics of Organic Matter in the Slurry and Substrate -- 4.7 Characteristics of pH of Fermented Slurry -- 4.8 Efficiency of the Biodigesters -- 4.9 Economic Evaluations -- 4.10 Social aspect of biogas technology -- 4.11 Technological aspect of geomembrane plastic biodigester -- 4.12 Technical problems with the geomembrane plastic digester
  • 4.13 Environmental Impact Assessment of the Plastic Biodigester -- 5 Conclusions and Recommendation -- 5.1 Conclusions -- 5.2 Recommendations -- References -- Appendix -- List of Tables -- List of figures -- Acronyms
Control code
EBC1640404
Dimensions
unknown
Edition
1st ed.
Extent
1 online resource (85 pages)
Form of item
online
Isbn
9783954896271
Media category
computer
Media MARC source
rdamedia
Media type code
c
Note
Electronic reproduction. Ann Arbor, Michigan : ProQuest Ebook Central, 2017. Available via World Wide Web. Access may be limited to ProQuest Ebook Central affiliated libraries.
Sound
unknown sound
Specific material designation
remote
System control number
  • (MiAaPQ)EBC1640404
  • (Au-PeEL)EBL1640404
  • (CaPaEBR)ebr10856447
  • (OCoLC)871859785

Library Locations

  • Albina LibraryBorrow it
    3605 NE 15th Avenue, Portland, OR, 97212, US
    45.549039 -122.650525
  • Belmont LibraryBorrow it
    1038 SE César E. Chávez Boulevard, Portland, OR, 97214, US
    45.515217 -122.622669
  • Capitol Hill LibraryBorrow it
    10723 SW Capitol Highway, Portland, OR, 97219, US
    45.448003 -122.725422
  • Central LibraryBorrow it
    801 SW 10th Avenue, Portland, OR, 97205, US
    45.519098 -122.682899
  • Fairview-Columbia LibraryBorrow it
    1520 NE Village Street, Fairview, OR, 97024, US
    45.532283 -122.439336
  • Gregory Heights LibraryBorrow it
    7921 NE Sandy Boulevard, Portland, OR, 97213, US
    45.551662 -122.581264
  • Gresham LibraryBorrow it
    385 NW Miller Avenue, Gresham, OR, 97030, US
    45.500070 -122.433041
  • Hillsdale LibraryBorrow it
    1525 SW Sunset Boulevard, Portland, OR, 97239, US
    45.479852 -122.694013
  • Holgate LibraryBorrow it
    7905 SE Holgate Boulevard, Portland, OR, 97206, US
    45.490548 -122.582218
  • Hollywood LibraryBorrow it
    4040 NE Tillamook Street, Portland, OR, 97212, US
    45.537544 -122.621237
  • Isom BuildingBorrow it
    205 NE Russell Street , Portland, OR, 97212, US
    45.541222 -122.663268
  • Kenton LibraryBorrow it
    8226 N Denver Avenue, Portland, OR, 97217, US
    45.582857 -122.686379
  • Midland LibraryBorrow it
    805 SE 122nd Avenue, Portland, OR, 97233, US
    45.516683 -122.538488
  • North Portland LibraryBorrow it
    512 N Killingsworth Street, Portland, OR, 97217, US
    45.562454 -122.671507
  • Northwest LibraryBorrow it
    2300 NW Thurman Street, Portland, OR, 97210, US
    45.535316 -122.699254
  • Rockwood LibraryBorrow it
    17917 SE Stark Street, Portland, OR, 97233, US
    45.519541 -122.479013
  • Sellwood-Moreland LibraryBorrow it
    7860 SE 13th Avenue, Portland, OR, 97202, US
    45.467703 -122.652639
  • St. Johns LibraryBorrow it
    7510 N Charleston Avenue, Portland, OR, 97203, US
    45.590046 -122.751043
  • The Title Wave Used BookstoreBorrow it
    216 NE Knott Street, Portland, OR, 97212, US
    45.541647 -122.663075
  • Troutdale LibraryBorrow it
    2451 SW Cherry Park Road, Troutdale, OR, 97060, US
    45.529595 -122.409662
  • Woodstock LibraryBorrow it
    6008 SE 49th Avenue, Portland, OR, 97206, US
    45.478961 -122.612079
Processing Feedback ...